Our study (1987 - 1998) on


A problem India needs to solve

India's population growth

Census year Total population Ratio of female and male Density
1901 238.1 million 972 : 1000 77 person / sq. km
1951 361 million 946 : 1000 117 person / sq. km
2001 1.027 billion 933 : 1000 324 person / sq. km


Population growth of a State (West Bengal) in India

Census year Total population Ratio of female and male Density
1901 16.9 million 945 : 1000 190 person / sq. km
1951 26.2 million 856 : 1000 296 person / sq. km
2001 80.2 million 934 : 1000 904 person / sq. km

City Dwellers

Calcutta as an example
<1% Elite
<5% Upper Middle Class
@ 20% Middle Class
@ 25% Lower Middle Class
@ 50% Slum and Foot-path dwellers


Kolkata metropolitan city

Kolkata footpath dwellers

A Simple Model to Understand Our Future

If an angel descends on earth or a shooting star asks me my wish, I will ask for a single thing from the inner core of my heart : Grant me the power to collect all the Calcutta people together and shift them to a better living environment in a wink and give me the power to build a fortress around this 100 sq.km city in a jiffy. Then I will slowly walk outside the city, and on the huge gate I will hang a placard :

Our list of publications on Air Pollution in Calcutta (C) - See also Selling Items

Fc1. Calcutta Pollutants: Part I. Appraisal of some heavy metals in Calcutta city sewage and sludge in use for fisheries and Agriculture. D.Chakraborti, D.Ghosh and S.Niyogi; Int. J. Env. Anal Chemistry 30 (1987) 243-253.

Fc2. Calcutta Pollutants: Part II. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon & Metal Concentration on Air Particulate during winter 1984. D.Chakraborti, L.Van Vaeek & P.Ven Espen Int.J.Env.Anal. Chemistry 32 (1)(1988) 109-120.

Fc3. Calcutta Pollutants: Part III. Toxic Metals in Dust and Characterization of Individual Aerosol Particles D. Chakraborti and B.Raeymackers; Int. J. Env. Anal Chemistry 32 (1) (1988) 121-134.

Fc4. Calcutta's Environment. D.Chakraborti in Calcutta, The Living city, Volume-II Edited by Sukanta Chowdhury. Oxford University Press, 1990

Fc5. Direct Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Urban Air Particulate by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Zeeman Background Correction after Simple Acid Decomposition. Part IV: Application to Calcutta Air Particulate. D.Chakraborti, Dipankar Das, Amit Chatterjee, Zhao Jin and S.G. Jiang; Environmental Technology; 13 (1993) 95-100.

Fc6. Calcutta Environmental Profile: Air Pollution - D.Chakraborti in Managing Urban Environment in India: Towards an Agenda for Action, Volume-III, Industry, Energy Transport and Air. Edited by K.C.Sivaramakrishnan, Times Research Foundation, 1993.

Fc7. Preliminary Estimation of Tetraalkyllead Compounds (TAL) in Calcutta City Air. D.Das, A.Chatterjee, G. Samanta and D.Chakraborti; Chem. Environ. Res.(3)(1993)279-287

Fc8. Calcutta Pollution: Part V. Lead and other heavy metal contamination in a residential area from a factory producing lead-ingots and lead-alloys. Gopal Samanta, Amit Chatterjee, Dipankar Das, Gautam Samanta, Partha P. Chowdhury, C. R. Chanda & D. Chakraborti. Environmental Technology, Volume 16, (1995) 223-231.

Fc9. Determination of Benzene, Tolluene and Xylene in ambient air of Calcutta for three years during winter. Gautam Chattopadhyay, Gautam Samanta, Suparna Chatterjee and Dipankar Chakraborti. Environmental Technology, 18 (1997), 211-218..

Fc10. Calcutta in Pollution Perspective. Dipankar Chakraborti. World Transport Policy & Practice, Volume 3, Number 3 (1997), 15-23.

Fc11. Air pollution in Calcutta during winter - A three-year study. Gautam Samanta, Gautam Chattopadhyay, Badal K. Mandal,Dipankar Das, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Partha P. Chowdhury, Chitta R. Chanda, Prabal Banerjee, Dilip Lodh and D. Chakraborti. Current Science, Vol. 75 No. 2 (1998), 123-138.

Fc12. Determination of particular phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of Calcutta for three years during winter. Gautam Chattopadhyay, Gautam Samanta, Suparna Chatterjee and Dipankar Chakraborti Environmental Technology, Vol. 19 (1998), 873-882.

Fc13. Kolkata City: An Urban Air Pollution Perspective. Dipankar Chakraborti. Book: The Earthscan Reader on World Transport Policy & Practice, Edited by John Whitelegg & Gary Haq, Earthscan Publications Ltd., London. Sterling, VA, Part 3(7)(2003), 78-87.

Methods adopted by other countries to reduce urban pollution may not work in Calcutta.