Ganga-Meghna Brahmaputra || West Bengal || Bangladesh || Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar || Uttarpradesh
Jharkhand || North-East Hilly States || Rajnandgaon, Chattisgarh || Behala, Kolkata, WB || As toxicity- Homeopathic Treatment
Effectiveness & Reliability - As Field Testing Kits || Utility Of Treatment Plant
Causes, Effects & Remedies - Groundwater As Calamity || References

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Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )

Reported work done by SOES

Groundwater arsenic contamination status of Kolkata district (southern part of Kolkata) one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India

Location and Demography
Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal (erstwhile known as Calcutta) is located in the eastern part of India at 22028′ N to 22037′30″ N and 88017′ 30″ E to 88025′ E. It has spread linearly along the banks of the river Hoogly, is at present the largest urban city [area 185 sq. km and night time population 4.6 million] of eastern India..  For administrative purpose it is divided into 141 wards.

Arsenic contamination status in groundwater of Kolkata District
We have analyzed --- hand pump tubewell water samples for arsenic from --- wards. --- percent of the samples exceed the WHO guideline value (10 µg/L) while ---% of the samples exceed the Indian standard (50 µg/L). The maximum arsenic concentration (825µg/L) was recorded in Lake Gardens area of ward no 93 (Table). We found arsenic contamination above 10µg/L in --wards and above 50µg/L in -- wards.

Groundwater arsenic situation in Kolkata district


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Reference
(1) A detailed study of the arsenic contamination of groundwater and its impact on residents in Rajapur village of the Domkal block, district Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Bhaskar Das, Md. Amir Hossain, Dilip Lodh, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shyamal Kanti Palit, Dipankar Chakraborti. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2005, 83(1), 49-57.
(2) The magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its health effects to the inhabitants of the Jalangi—one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Md. Amir Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Dilip Lodh, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shymapada Pati, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Quazi Quamruzzaman and Dipankar Chakraborti. Science of The Total Environment, 338 (3), 15 February 2005, Pages 189-200
(3) Status of groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in a Gram Panchayet (cluster of villages) in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected districts in West Bengal-India: A semi-microlevel study. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Md. Amir Hossain, Bhaskar Das, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Quazi Quamruzzaman and Dipankar Chakraborti. Journal of Water and Health, 2005, 3 (3), 2005, 283-296.
(4) Murshidabad - one of the nine groundwater arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part I: Magnitude of contamination and population at risk. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Shymapada Pati, Sad Ahamed, Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, M. Amir Hossain, Bishwajit Nayak, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shyamal Kanti Palit, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Khondaker Abdul Asad, Amitava Mukherjee  and Dipankar Chakraborti. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 43, 2005, 823-834,.
(5) Murshidabad - one of the nine groundwater arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: dermatological, neurological and obstetric findings. Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shymapada Pati, Rathindra Nath Dutta, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Sad Ahamed, Dilip Lodh, Bhaskar Das, M. Amir Hossain, Bishwajit Nayak, Shyamal Kanti Palit, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Khondaker Abdul Asad, Amitava Mukherjee and Dipankar Chakraborti. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology,43, 2005,  835-848.
(6) Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India: The Seven Years Study Report.  Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Badal Kumar Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Gautam Kumar Basu, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee, Kshitish Chandra Saha and Dipankar Chakraborti. Environmental Science & Health, 2003, A38 (1), 27-59.
(7) Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh. U.K. Chowdhury, M.M. Rahman, B.K. Biswas, G.Samanta, D. Lodh, G. K. Basu, C. R.Chanda, K. C. Saha, S. Roy, Q. Quamruzzaman and D. Chakraborti. Book: Bioavailability, Toxicity and Risk Relationships in Ecosystems, Editors: R. Naidu, WSR Gupta, S. Rogers, RS Kookana, NS Bolan and DC Adriano, Special Indian Edition, Oxford & I &H Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.   Science Publishers Inc., Enfield (NH), USA 2003, 291-329.
(8) Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Kunal Paul, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta, Dilip Lodh, Gautam Kumar Basu, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Shibtosh Roy, Ranajit Das, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Dipankar Chakraborti.  Book:  Liu, C.Q., Zhao, Z, Xiao, T and Guha, J (coordinators), Strategic Management of Environmental and Socio-economic Issues. A handbook: Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, Guiyang, China. 2003, 102-111.
(9) Arsenic calamity in India and Bangladesh sub-continent What lesson have been learned? Dipankar Chakraborti, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Kunal Paul, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mrinal Kumar Sengupta Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Subhash Chandra Mukherjee. Talanta 2002, 58, 3-22.
(10) Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh. U. K. Chowdhury, B. K. Biswas, T. Roy Chowdhury, B. K. Mandal, G. Samanta, G. K. Basu, C.R. Chanda, D. Lodh, K. C. Saha, D. Chakraborti S. C. Mukherjee, S. Roy, S. Kabir, Quamruzzaman.  Book: Trace Elements in Man and Animal 10, Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 2001, 645-650.  Editors: Roussel AM, Anderson RA, Favier AE
(11) Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in West Bengal - India and Bangladesh. Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Badal K. Mondal, Kunal Paul, Dilip Lodh, Gautam Kumar Basu, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Kshitish Chandra Saha, S.C. Mukherjee, Shibtosh Roy, Ranajit Das, Imrul Kaies, Ajoy Kishore Barua, Shyamal K.Palit, Quazi Quamruzzaman and Dipankar Chakraborti.  Environmental Sciences 8(5), 2001, 393-415.
(12) Chronic Arsenic Toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India – A Review and Commentary. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Uttam Kumar Chowdhury, S.C. Mukherjee, Badal K. Mondal, Kunal Paul, Dilip Lodh, Chitta Ranjan Chanda, Gautam Kumar Basu, Kshitish Chandra Saha, Shibtosh Roy, Ranajit Das, Shyamal K. Palit, Quazi Quamruzzaman and Dipankar Chakraborti. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 39(7), 2001, 683-700.
(13) Seventeen Years Experience of Arsenicosis in West Bengal, India. Kshitish Chandra Saha and Dipankar Chakraborti, Book:  Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, Edited by W.R.Chappell, C.O.Abernathy, R.L.Calderon, 2001, 387-396. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam-Lausanne-New York-Oxford-Tokyo.
(14) Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India.   U.K. Chowdhury, B. K. Biswas, T. Roy Chowdhury, G. Samanta, B.K. Mandal, G. K. Basu, C.R. Chanda, D. Lodh, K. C. Saha, S.C. Mukherjee, S.Roy, S.Kabir, Q.Quamruzzaman and D. Chakraborti. Environmental Health Perspective, 108: 393-397, 2000.
(15) Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: status report up to March 1998.  B.K. Mandal, B.K. Biswas, R.K. Dhar, T.Roy Chowdhury, G. Samanta. G.K. Basu, C.R. Chanda, K.C. Saha, S. Kabir, S. Roy and D. Chakraborti. Book: Metals and Genetics, Edited by Bibudhendra Sarkar, Publisher: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 3: 41-65, 1999.
(16) Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. B.K. Mandal, T.R. Chowdhury,  G. Samanta,  D.P.  Mukherjee,  C.R. Chanda, K.C. Saha, D. Chakraborti.  Science of the Total Environment, 218, 185-201, 1998.
(17) Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India‑the biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August 1995.  Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Badal Kr. Mandal, Gautam Samanta, Gautam Kr. Basu, Partha P.  Chowdhury, Chitta R.Chanda, Nirmal Kr.Karan, Dilip Lodh, Ratan Kr.Dhar, Dipankar Das, K.C.Saha and Dipankar Chakraborti.  Book:  Arsenic: Exposure and health effects, Edited by C.O.Abernathy, R.L. Calderon and W.R. Chappell, Chapter 9: 91‑111, 1997; Publisher: Chapman & Hall, New York.
(18) Chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal. B.K. Mandal, T. Roy Chowdhury, G.Samanta, G.K.Basu, P.P.Chowdhury, C.R.Chanda, D.Lodh, N.K.Karan, R.K.Dhar, D.T.Tamili, D. Das, K.C.Saha and D.Chakraborti.  Current Science, 72(2), 114‑117, 1997.
(19) Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India.  Dipankar Das, Gautam Samanta, Badal Kumar Mondal, Chitta R. Chanda, Partha Pratim Chowdhury, Gautam Kumar Basu & Dipankar Chakraborti. Environmental Geochemistry  & Health, 18(1), 5‑15, 1996.
(20) Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India‑The biggest arsenic calamity in the world.  Badal K.Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Gautam Samanta, Gautam K.Basu, Partha Pratim Chowdhury, Chitta R. Chanda, Dilip Lodh, Nirmal K.Karan, Ratan K.Dhar, Dipak K.Tamili, Dipankar Das, K.C.Saha & D.Chakraborti. Current Science, 70(11), 976‑986, June 1996.  
(21) Arsenic in Ground Water in Six Districts of West Bengal, India: The Biggest Arsenic Calamity in the World Part 1. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water and Urine of the Affected People. Amit Chatterjee, Dipankar Das, Badal K. Mandal, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Gautam Samanta & Dipankar Chakraborti.  Analyst, 120, 643‑650, 1995.
(22) Arsenic in Ground Water in Six Districts of West Bengal, India: The Biggest Arsenic Calamity in the World. Arsenic in Ground Water in Six Districts of West Bengal, India: The Biggest Arsenic Calamity in the World Part 1. Arsenic Species in Drinking Water and Urine of the Affected People. Part 2. Arsenic Concentration in Drinking Water, Hair, Nails, Urine, Skin‑scale and Liver Tissue (biopsy) of the Affected People. Dipankar Das, Amit Chatterjee, Badal Mandal, Gautam Samanta, Bhabatosh Chanda & Dipankar Chakraborti. The Analyst, 120, 917‑924, 1995.
(23) Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water in Six Districts of West Bengal: the Biggest Arsenic Calamity in the World.  D. Das, A. Chatterjee, G.Samanta, B.Mandal, T.Roy Chowdhury, G.Samanta, P.P. Chowdhury, C. Chanda, G. Basu, D. Lodh, S. Nandi, T. Chakraborty, S. Mandal, S. M. Bhattacharya and D.Chakraborti, Analyst, 119, 168N-170N, 1994.

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